Report on: Brain Drain
Date of submission: 28th of December, 2010.
A case study of Pakistan
Brain drain which is also known as the human capital flight, which can simply be defined mass migration of technically skilled people from one country to another country. In more simple words brain drain refers to the departure of skilled and educated people, like doctors, engineers, accountants, economists, scientists from one country to another to seek better life opportunities. Developing nations like Pakistan is badly suffering from brain drain. According to official estimates of Pakistan's Overseas Employment Corporation, close to 36,000 professionals, including doctors, engineers and teachers, have migrated to other countries in the last 30 years.
This report is based on the brain drain which has taken Pakistan aback, because of the very mass migration in the last few years. The background is given first which explains what brain drain really is. Then further the introduction is given which tells which parts of the world are affected by the brain drain and which ones are benefited by the brain gain. In the literature review part, different articles are summarized which gives us the detailed information about the current situation of brain drain in Pakistan and other developing countries. The last but the important part is the analysis in which all the articles are analyzed and then suggestions are given.
In the history there are many examples of brain drain. The brain drain initially started in 1492 when Jews were expelled after the catholic re conquest of Spain. As the Jews were dominating financial services in the country, so their migration caused future economic problems in Spain. This was the first brain drain which happened in the history. In 1685 we get an example of a huge brain drain with estimates ranging from 200,000 to 1000,000 in France, where the king Louis XIV forced the Protestants to walk out of the country. The migration of Protestants, who were technically skilled, was a huge loss from which the kingdom could not recover for many years. In 1930’s the law in Europe caused the migration of many scientists to US. Albert Einstein was one of the migrating ones, who permanently migrated to us from Germany in 1933.
Brain drain is common among developing Asian nations: India, Pakistan, Middle East countries like Iran and Iraq, African countries etc. In contrast developed countries like USA, Canada, and UK etc have brain gain from this happening. Brain drain usually affects the developing or under developing countries due to mass migration of technically skilled people to developed countries, which in turn are benefited by the brain gain.
In the recent years, developing country Pakistan has suffered a lot from the brain drain. Philip Bonosky, who writes in his book ‘Washington secret war against Afghanistan” that Pakistan, is the only country who has suffered from the brain drain to a great extent. The graduates migrate in order to get jobs, because nearly 3000 fresh graduates are jobless yearly. Number of Pakistanis migrating to different countries is increasing every year, and most of the migrating people are educated, either doctors, engineers, or other professionals who has no hope of better career in Pakistan.
Not only the professionals but also the workers and labor also want to go abroad for higher pays. The brain drain is usually a problem in the poor countries like Pakistan, with very unstable economic situations. Poor people usually suffers because they do not earn enough to serve their families, which eventually leads to migrate to the developed countries, who offers them incentives and higher pays which can improve their living standards.
According to Dodani and Laporte’s article, the health care migrations to the developed countries...